Tullie staff’s interaction with visitors is often memorable; I never cease to be amazed at the turns our conversations with visitors can take. Recently in Old Tullie House, a very elderly man and his grown-up granddaughter appeared. We started talking about the Pre-Raphaelite artists, but the conversation swung to how the young woman was about to start the third year of her degree in photography as fine art.
Her course was heavily film-based; that’s to say very little digital and lots of rolls and sheets of film and long, absorbing hours of darkroom work. The grandfather’s love of photography had infected her, and she was taking an opportunity he had never had. He was clearly bursting with pride and was overjoyed that she understood film.
There’ll be plenty now who have never seen a roll of film but will doubtless have seen a film camera – maybe in a junk shop or car boot sale or in the back of that rarely-opened drawer.
Recently I started a trawl through the cameras in the Tullie collection, improving their descriptions on our database. It was interesting to see how many of the very old simple cameras are still fully functional, and to be reminded how solidly even some of the cheapest of them were built. Of course “cheap” is relative.
They deserve attention, after all these old cameras were in at the beginning of popular photography and are the devices that gave us our most detailed social record. This year the People of Earth are expected to take well in excess of one TRILLION photos.
What surprised me a little was that more than half the 90-or-so cameras in the collection turned out to be Kodak-made. They are mostly the cameras of the “common man” (although for years Kodak’s advertising deigned to acknowledge that even a woman could take a photo). They are also of a time when photography was still something quite special. The majority are box and folding cameras, the earliest about 1898, the latest about 1984, with the 70s and 80s represented by the odd Instamatic and one or two cine cameras. There are no what you would call “good” modern cameras. There are a few amazing pieces of machinery in the collection. But a, or better, THE stand-out camera of the lot is this model of simplicity pictured here.
This unassuming black box camera is the camera that took photography into the price-bracket of the ordinary person. This is THE Kodak Brownie of 1900-1901. The one-dollar camera. That was about five shillings, or 25p, in Britain then. Add another dollar and you could buy a Brownie and a film AND get it processed and probably get fish and chips for two with the change*.
Kodak made 245,000 original Brownies from February 1900 to October 1901. They were wooden boxes with a mostly cardboard interior (check out the picture – you almost feel you could make one at home).
They had a simple metal rotary shutter and took just half a dozen pictures 6cm square on 117-size roll film. The small box on top of the camera is a reflecting viewfinder, which could be bought as an accessory. Without it the user had to almost imagine what would be in the photograph using two lines marked on the camera body as a reference.
The Brownie is fully functioning, and in remarkable condition taking into account its age, construction and the amount of use it could have had.
*Fish and chips in 1901, say 3d or a bit less maybe? So taking inflation into account, about £1.50 each now?
Andy Whysall – Curatorial Assistant